MesaLink: A memory-safe and OpenSSL-compatible TLS library
MesaLink is a memory-safe and OpenSSL-compatible TLS library. Since 2014, the industry has seen a huge loss due to memory vulnerabilities in TLS stacks, such as the infamous "Heartbleed" bug. MesaLink is created with the goal of eliminating memory vulnerabilities in TLS stacks. MesaLink is written in Rust, a programming language that guarantees memory safety. This significantly reduces the attack surfaces, which facilitates auditing and restricting the remaining attack surfaces. MesaLink is cross-platform and provides OpenSSL-compatible APIs. It works seamlessly in desktop, mobile, and IoT devices. With the growth of the ecosystem, MesaLink would also be adopted in the server environment in the future.
To get better functionality and strong security guarantees, MesaLink follows three rules-of-thumb for designing a hybrid, memory-safe architecture, as proposed by the Rust SGX SDK project:
- Unsafe components must not taint safe components, especially for public APIs and data structures.
- Unsafe components should be as small as possible and decoupled from safe components.
- Unsafe components should be explicitly marked during deployment and ready to upgrade.
- Memory safety. MesaLink and its dependencies are written in Rust, a programming language that guarantees memory safety. This extremely reduces the attack surfaces of an exposed TLS stack, leaving the remaining attack surfaces auditable and restricted.
- Flexibility. MesaLink offers flexible configurations tailored to various needs, such as IoT, connected home, automobiles, the cloud and more.
- Simplicity. MesaLink does not support obsolete or legacy TLS features to prevent misconfigurations that can introduce vulnerabilities.
- Compatibility. MesaLink provides OpenSSL-compatible APIs. This makes it a breeze to port an existing OpenSSL project.
- Future proof. MesaLink will support quantum-safe ciphersuites, safe-guarding TLS connections against even quantum computers.
- TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3 draft 22
- ALPN and SNI support
- Forced hostname validation
- Safe and fast crypto primitives from BoringSSL
- ECDHE key exchange with forwarding secrecy
- AES-256-GCM and Chacha20-Poly1305 bulk encryption
- Built-in Mozilla's CA root certificates
Building the MesaLink library from source
MesaLink is currently only available on Linux, Android and macOS. We will introduce support for other platforms in future releases.
To build MesaLink from source, the following tools are needed:
On Ubuntu, you can install them with:
$ sudo apt-get install m4 autoconf automake libtool make gcc curl $ curl https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh
On other platforms, please use the corresponding package managing tool to install them before proceeding. Note that MesaLink always targets the current stable and nightly release of Rust. We do not guarantee backward compatibility with older releases.
The source code can be downloaded from Github:
$ git clone https://github.com/mesalock-linux/mesalink.git
To configure MesaLink, execute the following:
$ ./autogen.sh [OPTIONS]
autogen.sh generates the
configure script and runs it with the default configuration. A non-exhaustive list of options that can be passed to either of these scripts are shown as follows:
--prefix=PREFIX install architecture-independent files in PREFIX [/usr/local] --includedir=DIR C header files [PREFIX/include] --build=BUILD configure for building on BUILD [guessed] --host=HOST cross-compile to build programs to run on HOST [BUILD] --enable-debug Add debug code/turns off optimizations (yes|no) [default=no] --enable-rusthost Set the Rust host for cross compilation (default: disabled) --enable-client Enable TLS client-side APIs (default: enabled) --enable-server Enable TLS server-side APIs (default: enabled) --enable-errorstrings Enable error string table (default: enabled) --enable-aesgcm Enable AES-GCM bulk encryption (default: enabled) --enable-chachapoly Enable Chacha20Poly1305 bulk encryption (default: enabled) --enable-tls13 Enable TLS 1.3 draft (default: enabled) --enable-x25519 Enable Curve25519 for key exchange (default: enabled) --enable-ecdh Enable curve secp256r1 and secp384r1 for key exchange (default: enabled) --enable-ecdsa Enable curve secp256r1 and secp384r1 for signature verification (default: enabled)
At the end of the configuration, a configuration summary is shown. For example,
Configuration summary for mesalink version 0.1.0 * Installation prefix: /usr/local * Host: x86_64-apple-darwin17.4.0 * Rust Host: * C Compiler: gcc * C Compiler vendor: clang * C Flags: -Os -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections -Werror -Wno-pragmas -Wall -Wno-strict-aliasing -Wextra -Wunknown-pragmas --param=ssp-buffer-size=1 -Waddress -Warray-bounds -Wbad-function-cast -Wchar-subscripts -Wcomment -Wfloat-equal -Wformat-security -Wformat=2 -Wmissing-field-initializers -Wmissing-noreturn -Wmissing-prototypes -Wnested-externs -Wpointer-arith -Wpointer-sign -Wredundant-decls -Wshadow -Wshorten-64-to-32 -Wsign-compare -Wstrict-overflow=1 -Wstrict-prototypes -Wswitch-enum -Wundef -Wunused -Wunused-result -Wunused-variable -Wwrite-strings -fwrapv * Debug enabled: no Features * Logging and error strings: yes * AES-GCM: yes * Chacha20-Poly1305: yes * TLS 1.3 (draft): yes * X25519 key exchange: yes * EC key exchange: yes * RSA signature verification: yes * EC signature verification: yes
Finally, simple run
make to compile the MesaLink library.
MesaLink comes with two examples that demonstrate a TLS client and a TLS server. Both of them are located at
The client example connects to a remote HTTPS server and prints the server's response.
$ ./examples/client/client api.ipify.org [+] Negotiated ciphersuite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256, enc_length=16, version=TLS1.2 [+] Sent 85 bytes GET / HTTP/1.0 Host: api.ipify.org Connection: close Accept-Encoding: identity HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: Cowboy Connection: close Content-Type: text/plain Vary: Origin Date: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 23:58:39 GMT Content-Length: 10 Via: 1.1 vegur 22.214.171.124 [+] TLS protocol version: TLS1.2 [+] Received 177 bytes
The server example comes with a pair of certificate and private key. The certificate file is in the PEM format and contains a chain of certificates from the server's certificate to the root CA certificate. The private key file contains a PKCS8-encoded private key in the PEM format. Once the server is up and running, open https://127.0.0.1:8443 and expect to see the hello message.
$ ./examples/server/server Usage: ./examples/server/server <portnum> <cert_file> <private_key_file> $ cd examples/server/server $ ./server 8443 certificates private_key [+] Listening at 0.0.0.0:8443 [+] Negotiated ciphersuite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256, enc_length=16, version=TLS1.2 [+] Received: GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: 127.0.0.1:8443 Connection: keep-alive User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_13_2) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/63.0.3239.84 Safari/537.36 Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1 Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9
MesaLink uses cargo for unit tests. The test cases are designed for the default configuration of MesaLink, in which all the optional features are enabled. So before running the test cases, please rebuild MesaLink with the default configuration:
$ ./configure $ make $ cargo test
BoringSSL SSL tests
BoGo is BoringSSL's protocol level test suite. We have ported BoGo for testing the functionality and compatibility of MesaLink. To run BoGo test cases, run the following:
$ cargo build --release --examples $ (cd bogo && ./fetch-and-build && ./runme)
MesaLink's underlying crypto library is Ring, a safe and fast crypto using Rust. To evaluate the speed and throughput of MesaLink, we developed new benchmarks for OpenSSL and wolfSSL based on the crypto-bench project. A summary of the available benchmarks is shown as follows:
|SHA-1 & SHA-256 & SHA-512||
|AES-128-GCM & AES-256-GCM||
|ECDH (suite B) key exchange||
|X25519 (Curve25519) key exchange||
To run the benchmarks, run the following command with nightly Rust. Note you must have OpenSSL/LibreSSL or wolfSSL installed to run the corresponding benchmarks.
$ rustup install nightly-2017-12-24 $ rustup default nightly-2017-12-24 $ cd crypto-bench && ./bench_all
The MesaLink project would not have been possible without the following high-quality open source projects in the Rust community. Thanks for code and inspiration!
rustls: A modern TLS library in Rust, maintained by Joseph Birr-Pixton @ctz
sct.rs: Certificate transparency SCT verification library in rust, maintained by Joseph Birr-Pixton @ctz
ring: Safe, fast, small crypto using Rust, by Brian Smith @briansmith
webpki: WebPKI X.509 Certificate Validation in Rust, maintained by Brian Smith @briansmith
crypto-bench: Benchmarks for crypto libraries, maintained by Brian Smith @briansmith
- Special thanks to Brian Smith for insights and valuable discussion
- Tao Wei
- Yulong Zhang
MesaLink is provided under the 3-Clause BSD license. For a copy, see the LICENSE file.